Producing inputs from grammars gives all possible expansions of a rule the same likelihood. For producing a comprehensive test suite, however, it makes more sense to maximize *variety* – for instance, by not repeating the same expansions over and over again. In this chapter, we explore how to systematically *cover* elements of a grammar such that we maximize variety and do not miss out individual elements.

The aim of test generation is to cover all functionality of a program – hopefully including the failing functionality, of course. This functionality, however, is tied to the *structure of the input*: If we fail to produce certain input elements, then the associated code and functionality will not be triggered either, nixing our chances to find a bug in there.

As an example, consider our expression grammar `EXPR_GRAMMAR`

from the chapter on grammars.:

- If we do not produce negative numbers, then negative numbers will not be tested.
- If we do not produce floating-point numbers, then floating-point numbers will not be tested.

Our aim must thus be to *cover all possible expansions* – and not only by chance, but *by design*.

*track* the expansions that occur during grammar production: If we already have seen some expansion, we can prefer other possible expansion candidates out of the set of possible expansions. Consider the following rule in our expression grammar:

In [7]:

```
EXPR_GRAMMAR["<factor>"]
```

Out[7]:

['+<factor>', '-<factor>', '(<expr>)', '<integer>.<integer>', '<integer>']

`<integer>`

in the first expansion of `<factor>`

. As it comes to expand the next factor, we would mark the `<integer>`

expansion as already covered, and choose one of the yet uncovered alternatives such as `-<factor>`

(a negative number) or `<integer>.<integer>`

(a floating-point number). Only when we have covered all alternatives would we go back and reconsider expansions covered before.

In [8]:

```
quiz("Which expansions of `EXPR_GRAMMAR` does the expression `1 + 2` cover?",
[
"`<start> -> <expr>`",
"`<integer> -> <digit><integer>`",
"`<integer> -> <digit>`",
"`<factor> -> +<factor>`"
], [1, 3])
```

Out[8]:

Which expansions of

`EXPR_GRAMMAR`

does the expression `1 + 2`

cover?

Indeed! The expression has expansions from `<start>`

and into individual digits.

This concept of *grammar coverage* is easy to implement. We introduce a class `TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer`

that keeps track of the current grammar coverage achieved:

In [11]:

```
class TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer(GrammarFuzzer):
"""Track grammar coverage during production"""
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs) -> None:
# invoke superclass __init__(), passing all arguments
super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)
self.reset_coverage()
```

In the set `covered_expansions`

, we store individual expansions seen.

In [12]:

```
class TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer(TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer):
def expansion_coverage(self) -> Set[str]:
"""Return the set of covered expansions as strings SYMBOL -> EXPANSION"""
return self.covered_expansions
def reset_coverage(self) -> None:
"""Clear coverage info tracked so far"""
self.covered_expansions: Set[str] = set()
```

*symbol* -> *expansion*", using the function `expansion_key()`

to generate a string representation for the (*symbol*, *expansion*) pair.

In [13]:

```
def expansion_key(symbol: str,
expansion: Union[Expansion,
DerivationTree,
List[DerivationTree]]) -> str:
"""Convert (symbol, `expansion`) into a key "SYMBOL -> EXPRESSION".
`expansion` can be an expansion string, a derivation tree,
or a list of derivation trees."""
if isinstance(expansion, tuple):
# Expansion or single derivation tree
expansion, _ = expansion
if not isinstance(expansion, str):
# Derivation tree
children = expansion
expansion = all_terminals((symbol, children))
assert isinstance(expansion, str)
return symbol + " -> " + expansion
```

Here's an example:

In [14]:

```
expansion_key(START_SYMBOL, EXPR_GRAMMAR[START_SYMBOL][0])
```

Out[14]:

'<start> -> <expr>'

*expansion*, we can also pass a list of children as argument, which will then automatically be converted into a string.

In [15]:

```
children: List[DerivationTree] = [("<expr>", None), (" + ", []), ("<term>", None)]
expansion_key("<expr>", children)
```

Out[15]:

'<expr> -> <expr> + <term>'

We can compute the set of possible expansions in a grammar by enumerating all expansions. The method `max_expansion_coverage()`

traverses the grammar recursively starting from the given symbol (by default: the grammar start symbol) and accumulates all expansions in the set `expansions`

. With the `max_depth`

parameter (default: $\infty$), we can control how deep the grammar exploration should go; we will need this later in the chapter.

In [16]:

```
class TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer(TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer):
def _max_expansion_coverage(self, symbol: str,
max_depth: Union[int, float]) -> Set[str]:
if max_depth <= 0:
return set()
self._symbols_seen.add(symbol)
expansions = set()
for expansion in self.grammar[symbol]:
expansions.add(expansion_key(symbol, expansion))
for nonterminal in nonterminals(expansion):
if nonterminal not in self._symbols_seen:
expansions |= self._max_expansion_coverage(
nonterminal, max_depth - 1)
return expansions
def max_expansion_coverage(self, symbol: Optional[str] = None,
max_depth: Union[int, float] = float('inf')) \
-> Set[str]:
"""Return set of all expansions in a grammar
starting with `symbol` (default: start symbol).
If `max_depth` is given, expand only to that depth."""
if symbol is None:
symbol = self.start_symbol
self._symbols_seen: Set[str] = set()
cov = self._max_expansion_coverage(symbol, max_depth)
if symbol == START_SYMBOL:
assert len(self._symbols_seen) == len(self.grammar)
return cov
```

We can use `max_expansion_coverage()`

to compute all the expansions within the expression grammar:

In [17]:

```
expr_fuzzer = TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
expr_fuzzer.max_expansion_coverage()
```

Out[17]:

{'<digit> -> 0', '<digit> -> 1', '<digit> -> 2', '<digit> -> 3', '<digit> -> 4', '<digit> -> 5', '<digit> -> 6', '<digit> -> 7', '<digit> -> 8', '<digit> -> 9', '<expr> -> <term>', '<expr> -> <term> + <expr>', '<expr> -> <term> - <expr>', '<factor> -> (<expr>)', '<factor> -> +<factor>', '<factor> -> -<factor>', '<factor> -> <integer>', '<factor> -> <integer>.<integer>', '<integer> -> <digit>', '<integer> -> <digit><integer>', '<start> -> <expr>', '<term> -> <factor>', '<term> -> <factor> * <term>', '<term> -> <factor> / <term>'}

During expansion, we can keep track of expansions seen. To do so, we hook into the method `choose_node_expansion()`

, expanding a single node in our Grammar fuzzer.

In [18]:

```
class TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer(TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer):
def add_coverage(self, symbol: str,
new_child: Union[Expansion, List[DerivationTree]]) -> None:
key = expansion_key(symbol, new_child)
if self.log and key not in self.covered_expansions:
print("Now covered:", key)
self.covered_expansions.add(key)
def choose_node_expansion(self, node: DerivationTree,
children_alternatives:
List[List[DerivationTree]]) -> int:
(symbol, children) = node
index = super().choose_node_expansion(node, children_alternatives)
self.add_coverage(symbol, children_alternatives[index])
return index
```

`missing_expansion_coverage()`

is a helper method that returns the expansions that still have to be covered:

In [19]:

```
class TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer(TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer):
def missing_expansion_coverage(self) -> Set[str]:
"""Return expansions not covered yet"""
return self.max_expansion_coverage() - self.expansion_coverage()
```

Let us show how tracking works. To keep things simple, let us focus on `<digit>`

expansions only.

In [20]:

```
digit_fuzzer = TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer(
EXPR_GRAMMAR, start_symbol="<digit>", log=True)
digit_fuzzer.fuzz()
```

Tree: <digit> Expanding <digit> randomly Now covered: <digit> -> 9 Tree: 9 '9'

Out[20]:

'9'

In [21]:

```
digit_fuzzer.fuzz()
```

Tree: <digit> Expanding <digit> randomly Now covered: <digit> -> 0 Tree: 0 '0'

Out[21]:

'0'

In [22]:

```
digit_fuzzer.fuzz()
```

Tree: <digit> Expanding <digit> randomly Now covered: <digit> -> 5 Tree: 5 '5'

Out[22]:

'5'

Here's the set of covered expansions so far:

In [23]:

```
digit_fuzzer.expansion_coverage()
```

Out[23]:

{'<digit> -> 0', '<digit> -> 5', '<digit> -> 9'}

This is the set of all expansions we can cover:

In [24]:

```
digit_fuzzer.max_expansion_coverage()
```

Out[24]:

{'<digit> -> 0', '<digit> -> 1', '<digit> -> 2', '<digit> -> 3', '<digit> -> 4', '<digit> -> 5', '<digit> -> 6', '<digit> -> 7', '<digit> -> 8', '<digit> -> 9'}

This is the missing coverage:

In [25]:

```
digit_fuzzer.missing_expansion_coverage()
```

Out[25]:

{'<digit> -> 1', '<digit> -> 2', '<digit> -> 3', '<digit> -> 4', '<digit> -> 6', '<digit> -> 7', '<digit> -> 8'}

On average, how many characters do we have to produce until all expansions are covered?

In [26]:

```
def average_length_until_full_coverage(fuzzer: TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer) -> float:
trials = 50
sum = 0
for trial in range(trials):
# print(trial, end=" ")
fuzzer.reset_coverage()
while len(fuzzer.missing_expansion_coverage()) > 0:
s = fuzzer.fuzz()
sum += len(s)
return sum / trials
```

In [27]:

```
digit_fuzzer.log = False
average_length_until_full_coverage(digit_fuzzer)
```

Out[27]:

28.4

For full expressions, this takes a bit longer:

In [28]:

```
expr_fuzzer = TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
average_length_until_full_coverage(expr_fuzzer)
```

Out[28]:

138.12

Let us now not only track coverage, but actually *produce* coverage. The idea is as follows:

- We determine children yet uncovered (in
`uncovered_children`

) - If all children are covered, we fall back to the original method (i.e., choosing one expansion randomly)
- Otherwise, we select a child from the uncovered children and mark it as covered.

To this end, we introduce a new fuzzer `SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer`

that implements this strategy in the `choose_node_expansion()`

method – the method the `GrammarFuzzer`

superclass uses to select the child to be expanded.

In [29]:

```
class SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer(TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer):
"""When choosing expansions, prefer expansions not covered."""
def choose_node_expansion(self,
node: DerivationTree,
children_alternatives: List[List[DerivationTree]]) -> int:
"""Return index of expansion in `children_alternatives` to be selected.
Picks uncovered expansions, if any."""
# Prefer uncovered expansions
(symbol, children) = node
uncovered_children = [c for (i, c) in enumerate(children_alternatives)
if expansion_key(symbol, c)
not in self.covered_expansions]
index_map = [i for (i, c) in enumerate(children_alternatives)
if c in uncovered_children]
if len(uncovered_children) == 0:
# All expansions covered - use superclass method
return self.choose_covered_node_expansion(node, children_alternatives)
# Select from uncovered nodes
index = self.choose_uncovered_node_expansion(node, uncovered_children)
return index_map[index]
```

`choose_covered_node_expansion()`

and `choose_uncovered_node_expansion()`

are provided for subclasses to hook in:

In [30]:

```
class SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer(SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer):
def choose_uncovered_node_expansion(self,
node: DerivationTree,
children_alternatives: List[List[DerivationTree]]) \
-> int:
"""Return index of expansion in _uncovered_ `children_alternatives`
to be selected.
To be overloaded in subclasses."""
return TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer.choose_node_expansion(
self, node, children_alternatives)
def choose_covered_node_expansion(self,
node: DerivationTree,
children_alternatives: List[List[DerivationTree]]) \
-> int:
"""Return index of expansion in _covered_ `children_alternatives`
to be selected.
To be overloaded in subclasses."""
return TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer.choose_node_expansion(
self, node, children_alternatives)
```

`EXPR_GRAMMAR`

grammar to produce digits, for instance, the fuzzer produces one digit after the other:

In [31]:

```
f = SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR, start_symbol="<digit>")
f.fuzz()
```

Out[31]:

'5'

In [32]:

```
f.fuzz()
```

Out[32]:

'2'

In [33]:

```
f.fuzz()
```

Out[33]:

'1'

Here's the set of covered expansions so far:

In [34]:

```
f.expansion_coverage()
```

Out[34]:

{'<digit> -> 1', '<digit> -> 2', '<digit> -> 5'}

Let us fuzz some more. We see that with each iteration, we cover another expansion:

In [35]:

```
for i in range(7):
print(f.fuzz(), end=" ")
```

0 9 7 4 8 3 6

At the end, all expansions are covered:

In [36]:

```
f.missing_expansion_coverage()
```

Out[36]:

set()

In [37]:

```
f = SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
for i in range(10):
print(f.fuzz())
```

Again, all expansions are covered:

In [38]:

```
f.missing_expansion_coverage()
```

Out[38]:

set()

We see that our strategy is much more effective in achieving coverage than the random approach:

In [39]:

```
average_length_until_full_coverage(SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR))
```

Out[39]:

52.28

Selecting expansions for individual rules is a good start; however, it is not sufficient, as the following example shows. We apply our coverage fuzzer on the CGI grammar from the chapter on grammars:

In [40]:

```
CGI_GRAMMAR
```

Out[40]:

{'<start>': ['<string>'], '<string>': ['<letter>', '<letter><string>'], '<letter>': ['<plus>', '<percent>', '<other>'], '<plus>': ['+'], '<percent>': ['%<hexdigit><hexdigit>'], '<hexdigit>': ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'], '<other>': ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', '-', '_']}

In [41]:

```
f = SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer(CGI_GRAMMAR)
for i in range(10):
print(f.fuzz())
```

c +%a6++ +- + ++ %18%b7 +e _ d2+%e3 %d0

After 10 iterations, we still have a number of expansions uncovered:

In [42]:

```
f.missing_expansion_coverage()
```

Out[42]:

{'<hexdigit> -> 2', '<hexdigit> -> 4', '<hexdigit> -> 5', '<hexdigit> -> 9', '<hexdigit> -> c', '<hexdigit> -> f', '<other> -> 0', '<other> -> 1', '<other> -> 3', '<other> -> 4', '<other> -> 5', '<other> -> a', '<other> -> b'}

`hexdigit`

rule. However, we first need to *reach* this expansion. When expanding a `<letter>`

symbol, we have the choice between three possible expansions:

In [43]:

```
CGI_GRAMMAR["<letter>"]
```

Out[43]:

['<plus>', '<percent>', '<other>']

`choose_node_expansion()`

above will choose one randomly – even if there may be more expansions to cover when choosing `<percent>`

.

What we need is a better strategy that will pick `<percent>`

if there are more uncovered expansions following – even if `<percent>`

is covered. Such a strategy was first discussed by W. Burkhardt \cite{Burkhardt1967} under the name of "Shortest Path Selection":

This version selects, from several alternatives for development, that syntactic unit under which there is still an unused unit available, starting with the shortest path.

This is what we will implement in the next steps.

To address this problem, we introduce a new class `GrammarCoverageFuzzer`

that builds on `SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer`

, but with a *better strategy*. First, we need to compute the *maximum set of expansions* that can be reached from a particular symbol, as we already have implemented in `max_expansion_coverage()`

. The idea is to later compute the *intersection* of this set and the expansions already covered, such that we can favor those expansions with a non-empty intersection.

`symbol`

parameter to `max_expansion_coverage()`

, we can compute the possible expansions for every symbol:

In [44]:

```
f = SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
f.max_expansion_coverage('<integer>')
```

Out[44]:

{'<digit> -> 0', '<digit> -> 1', '<digit> -> 2', '<digit> -> 3', '<digit> -> 4', '<digit> -> 5', '<digit> -> 6', '<digit> -> 7', '<digit> -> 8', '<digit> -> 9', '<integer> -> <digit>', '<integer> -> <digit><integer>'}

We see that by expanding `<integer>`

, we can cover a total of 12 productions.

In [45]:

```
quiz("How many productions would `f.max_expansion_coverage('<digit>')` return?",
[
"10",
"11",
"12",
"13"
], "100 / 100")
```

Out[45]:

How many productions would

`f.max_expansion_coverage('<digit>')`

return?

Indeed. Here are all the possible expansions for `<digit>`

:

In [46]:

```
f.max_expansion_coverage('<digit>')
```

Out[46]:

We can now start to implement `GrammarCoverageFuzzer`

. Our idea is to determine the *missing coverage* for each child.

Given a list of children, we can use `max_expansion_coverage()`

to compute the maximum coverage for each child. From this, we *subtract* the coverage already seen (`expansion_coverage()`

). This results in the coverage we can still obtain.

In [47]:

```
class GrammarCoverageFuzzer(SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer):
"""Produce from grammars, aiming for coverage of all expansions."""
def new_child_coverage(self,
symbol: str,
children: List[DerivationTree],
max_depth: Union[int, float] = float('inf')) -> Set[str]:
"""Return new coverage that would be obtained
by expanding (`symbol`, `children`)"""
new_cov = self._new_child_coverage(children, max_depth)
new_cov.add(expansion_key(symbol, children))
new_cov -= self.expansion_coverage() # -= is set subtraction
return new_cov
def _new_child_coverage(self, children: List[DerivationTree],
max_depth: Union[int, float]) -> Set[str]:
new_cov: Set[str] = set()
for (c_symbol, _) in children:
if c_symbol in self.grammar:
new_cov |= self.max_expansion_coverage(c_symbol, max_depth)
return new_cov
```

Let us illustrate `new_child_coverage()`

. We again start fuzzing, choosing expansions randomly.

In [48]:

```
f = GrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR, start_symbol="<digit>", log=True)
f.fuzz()
```

Tree: <digit> Expanding <digit> randomly Now covered: <digit> -> 2 Tree: 2 '2'

Out[48]:

'2'

This is our current coverage:

In [49]:

```
f.expansion_coverage()
```

Out[49]:

{'<digit> -> 2'}

In [50]:

```
# docassert
assert f.expansion_coverage() == {'<digit> -> 2'}
```

If we want to expand `<digit>`

into `0`

, that would yield us new coverage:

In [51]:

```
f.new_child_coverage("<digit>", [('0', [])])
```

Out[51]:

{'<digit> -> 0'}

If we want to expand `<digit>`

into `2`

again, that would yield us *no* new coverage:

In [52]:

```
f.new_child_coverage("<digit>", [('2', [])])
```

Out[52]:

set()

`<digit>`

, we see that all expansions offer additional coverage, *except* for the `2`

we have already covered.

In [53]:

```
for expansion in EXPR_GRAMMAR["<digit>"]:
children = f.expansion_to_children(expansion)
print(expansion, f.new_child_coverage("<digit>", children))
```

`new_child_coverage()`

and choose among the expansions that offer the greatest new (unseen) coverage.

*breadth-first* strategy, first covering all expansions up to a given depth, and only then looking for a greater depth.

`new_coverages()`

is at the heart of this strategy: Starting with a maximum depth (`max_depth`

) of zero, it increases the depth until it finds at least one uncovered expansion.

We can now define `choose_node_expansion()`

to make use of this strategy:

- We determine the possible coverages to be obtained (using
`new_coverages()`

) - We (randomly) select among the children which sport the maximum coverage (using
`choose_uncovered_node_expansion()`

).

`GrammarCoverageFuzzer`

is now complete! Let us apply it on a series of examples. On expressions, it quickly covers all digits and operators:

In [56]:

```
f = GrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR, min_nonterminals=3)
f.fuzz()
```

Out[56]:

'-4.02 / (1) * +3 + 5.9 / 7 * 8 - 6'

In [57]:

```
f.max_expansion_coverage() - f.expansion_coverage()
```

Out[57]:

set()

On average, it is again faster than the simple strategy:

In [58]:

```
average_length_until_full_coverage(GrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR))
```

Out[58]:

50.74

On the CGI grammar, it takes but a few iterations to cover all letters and digits:

In [59]:

```
f = GrammarCoverageFuzzer(CGI_GRAMMAR, min_nonterminals=5)
while len(f.max_expansion_coverage() - f.expansion_coverage()) > 0:
print(f.fuzz())
```

%18%d03 %c3%94%7f+cd %a6%b5%e2%5e%4c-54e01a2 %5eb%7cb_ec%a0+

In [60]:

```
average_length_until_full_coverage(TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer(CGI_GRAMMAR))
```

Out[60]:

211.34

In [61]:

```
average_length_until_full_coverage(SimpleGrammarCoverageFuzzer(CGI_GRAMMAR))
```

Out[61]:

68.64

In [62]:

```
average_length_until_full_coverage(GrammarCoverageFuzzer(CGI_GRAMMAR))
```

Out[62]:

40.38

Sometimes, grammar elements are used in more than just one place. In our expression grammar, for instance, the `<integer>`

symbol is used for integer numbers as well as for floating point numbers:

In [63]:

```
EXPR_GRAMMAR["<factor>"]
```

Out[63]:

['+<factor>', '-<factor>', '(<expr>)', '<integer>.<integer>', '<integer>']

`<integer>`

expansions (i.e., all `<digit>`

expansions) are covered. However, the individual digits would be *distributed* across all occurrences of `<integer>`

in the grammar. If our coverage-based fuzzer produces, say, `1234.56`

and `7890`

, we would have full coverage of all digit expansions. However, `<integer>.<integer>`

and `<integer>`

in the `<factor>`

expansions above would individually cover only a fraction of the digits. If floating-point numbers and whole numbers have different functions that read them in, we would like each of these functions to be tested with all digits; maybe we would also like the whole and fractional part of a floating-point number to be tested with all digits each.

`<integer>`

and `<digit>`

in the `<factor>`

context) can be useful if we can assume that all occurrences of this symbol are treated alike anyway. If not, though, one way to ensure that an occurrence of a symbol is systematically covered independently of other occurrences is to assign the occurrence to a new symbol which is a *duplicate* of the old symbol. We will first show how to *manually* create such duplicates, and then a dedicated function which does it automatically.

As stated above, one simple way to achieve coverage in context is by *duplicating* symbols as well as the rules they reference to. For instance, we could replace `<integer>.<integer>`

by `<integer-1>.<integer-2>`

and give `<integer-1>`

and `<integer-2>`

the same definitions as the original `<integer>`

. This would mean that not only all expansions of `<integer>`

, but also all expansions of `<integer-1>`

and `<integer-2>`

would be covered.

Let us illustrate this with actual code:

In [64]:

```
dup_expr_grammar = extend_grammar(EXPR_GRAMMAR,
{
"<factor>": ["+<factor>", "-<factor>", "(<expr>)", "<integer-1>.<integer-2>", "<integer>"],
"<integer-1>": ["<digit-1><integer-1>", "<digit-1>"],
"<integer-2>": ["<digit-2><integer-2>", "<digit-2>"],
"<digit-1>":
["0", "1", "2", "3", "4",
"5", "6", "7", "8", "9"],
"<digit-2>":
["0", "1", "2", "3", "4",
"5", "6", "7", "8", "9"]
}
)
```

In [66]:

```
f = GrammarCoverageFuzzer(dup_expr_grammar, start_symbol="<factor>")
for i in range(10):
print(f.fuzz())
```

If we want to enhance coverage in context, manually adapting our grammars may not be the perfect choice, since any change to the grammar will have to be replicated in all duplicates. Instead, we introduce a function that will do the duplication for us.

The function `duplicate_context()`

takes a grammar, a symbol in the grammar, and an expansion of this symbol (`None`

or not given: all expansions of symbol), and it changes the expansion to refer to a duplicate of all originally referenced rules. The idea is that we invoke it as

```
dup_expr_grammar = extend_grammar(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
duplicate_context(dup_expr_grammar, "<factor>", "<integer>.<integer>")
```

and get a similar result as with our manual changes, above.

Here is the code:

In [68]:

```
def duplicate_context(grammar: Grammar,
symbol: str,
expansion: Optional[Expansion] = None,
depth: Union[float, int] = float('inf')):
"""Duplicate an expansion within a grammar.
In the given grammar, take the given expansion of the given `symbol`
(if `expansion` is omitted: all symbols), and replace it with a
new expansion referring to a duplicate of all originally referenced rules.
If `depth` is given, limit duplication to `depth` references
(default: unlimited)
"""
orig_grammar = extend_grammar(grammar)
_duplicate_context(grammar, orig_grammar, symbol,
expansion, depth, seen={})
# After duplication, we may have unreachable rules; delete them
for nonterminal in unreachable_nonterminals(grammar):
del grammar[nonterminal]
```

`duplicate_context()`

works, now with results. We let it duplicate the `<integer>.<integer>`

expansion in our expression grammar, and obtain a new grammar with an `<integer-1>.<integer-2>`

expansion where both `<integer-1>`

and `<integer-2>`

refer to copies of the original rules:

In [71]:

```
dup_expr_grammar = extend_grammar(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
duplicate_context(dup_expr_grammar, "<factor>", "<integer>.<integer>")
dup_expr_grammar
```

Out[71]:

{'<start>': ['<expr>'], '<expr>': ['<term> + <expr>', '<term> - <expr>', '<term>'], '<term>': ['<factor> * <term>', '<factor> / <term>', '<factor>'], '<factor>': ['+<factor>', '-<factor>', '(<expr>)', '<integer-1>.<integer-2>', '<integer>'], '<integer>': ['<digit><integer>', '<digit>'], '<digit>': ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9'], '<integer-1>': ['<digit-1><integer-1>', '<digit-2>'], '<digit-1>': ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9'], '<digit-2>': ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9'], '<integer-2>': ['<digit-3><integer-2>', '<digit-4>'], '<digit-3>': ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9'], '<digit-4>': ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9']}

In [72]:

```
f = GrammarCoverageFuzzer(dup_expr_grammar, start_symbol="<factor>")
for i in range(10):
print(f.fuzz())
```

(57.5) 2 +-(1 / 3 + 6 / 0 - 7 * 59 * 3 + 8 * 4) 374.88 5.709 0.93 01.1 892.27 219.50 6.636

`depth`

parameter controls how deep the duplication should go. Setting `depth`

to 1 will duplicate only the next rule:

In [73]:

```
dup_expr_grammar = extend_grammar(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
duplicate_context(dup_expr_grammar, "<factor>", "<integer>.<integer>", depth=1)
dup_expr_grammar
```

Out[73]:

{'<start>': ['<expr>'], '<expr>': ['<term> + <expr>', '<term> - <expr>', '<term>'], '<term>': ['<factor> * <term>', '<factor> / <term>', '<factor>'], '<factor>': ['+<factor>', '-<factor>', '(<expr>)', '<integer-1>.<integer-2>', '<integer>'], '<integer>': ['<digit><integer>', '<digit>'], '<digit>': ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9'], '<integer-1>': ['<digit><integer-1>', '<digit>'], '<integer-2>': ['<digit><integer-2>', '<digit>']}

`depth`

is set to $\infty$, indicating unlimited duplication. True unbounded duplication could lead to problems for a recursive grammar such as `EXPR_GRAMMAR`

, so `duplicate_context()`

is set to no longer duplicate symbols once duplicated. Still, if we apply it to duplicate *all* `<expr>`

expansions, we obtain a grammar with no less than 292 rules:

In [75]:

```
dup_expr_grammar = extend_grammar(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
duplicate_context(dup_expr_grammar, "<expr>")
```

In [76]:

```
assert is_valid_grammar(dup_expr_grammar)
len(dup_expr_grammar)
```

Out[76]:

292

This gives us almost 2000 expansions to cover:

In [77]:

```
f = GrammarCoverageFuzzer(dup_expr_grammar)
len(f.max_expansion_coverage())
```

Out[77]:

1981

Duplicating one more time keeps on both growing the grammar and the coverage requirements:

In [78]:

```
dup_expr_grammar = extend_grammar(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
duplicate_context(dup_expr_grammar, "<expr>")
duplicate_context(dup_expr_grammar, "<expr-1>")
len(dup_expr_grammar)
```

Out[78]:

594

In [79]:

```
f = GrammarCoverageFuzzer(dup_expr_grammar)
len(f.max_expansion_coverage())
```

Out[79]:

3994

In [80]:

```
dup_expr_grammar["<expr>"]
```

Out[80]:

['<term-1> + <expr-4>', '<term-5> - <expr-8>', '<term-9>']

In [81]:

```
dup_expr_grammar["<term-1-1>"]
```

Out[81]:

['<factor-1-1> * <term-1-1>', '<factor-2-1> / <term-1-1>', '<factor-3-1>']

In [82]:

```
dup_expr_grammar["<factor-1-1>"]
```

Out[82]:

['+<factor-1-1>', '-<factor-1-1>', '(<expr-1-1>)', '<integer-1-1>.<integer-2-1>', '<integer-3-1>']

`GrammarCoverageFuzzer()`

will then go and cover all these expansions in all contexts. If you want to cover elements in many contexts, then `duplicate_context()`

followed by a coverage-driven fuzzer is your friend.

With or without context: By systematically covering all input elements, we get a larger variety in our inputs – but does this translate into a wider variety of program behaviors? After all, these behaviors are what we want to cover, including the unexpected behaviors.

`+`

, subtraction triggered by the presence of `-`

, and floating-point arithmetic triggered by the presence of floating-point numbers in the input.

*correlation between grammar coverage and code coverage*. In other words: If we can achieve a high grammar coverage, this also leads to a high code coverage.

Let us explore this relationship on one of our grammars – say, the CGI decoder from the chapter on coverage.

In [91]:

```
# ignore
plt.scatter(xs, ys);
```

We see that the higher the grammar coverage, the higher the code coverage.

This also translates into a correlation coefficient of about 0.9, indicating a strong correlation:

In [93]:

```
np.corrcoef(xs, ys)
```

Out[93]:

array([[1. , 0.81663071], [0.81663071, 1. ]])

This is also confirmed by the Spearman rank correlation:

In [95]:

```
spearmanr(xs, ys)
```

Out[95]:

SpearmanrResult(correlation=0.937547293248041, pvalue=1.0928720949027406e-09)

Let us repeat this experiment on URL grammars. We use the same code as above, except for exchanging the grammars and the function in place:

In [101]:

```
plt.scatter(xs, ys);
```

Here, we have an even stronger correlation of more than .95:

In [102]:

```
np.corrcoef(xs, ys)
```

Out[102]:

array([[1. , 0.96716155], [0.96716155, 1. ]])

This is also confirmed by the Spearman rank correlation:

In [103]:

```
spearmanr(xs, ys)
```

Out[103]:

SpearmanrResult(correlation=1.0, pvalue=0.0)

The correlation observed for the CGI and URL examples will not hold for every program and every structure.

First, some grammar elements are treated uniformly by a program even though the grammar sees them as different symbols. In the host name of a URL, for instance, we can have many characters, although a URL-handling program treats them all the same. Likewise, individual digits, once composed into a number, make less of a difference than the value of the number itself. Hence, achieving variety in digits or characters will not necessarily yield a large difference in functionality.

*differentiating elements dependent on their context*, and covering alternatives for each context, as discussed above. The key is to identify the contexts in which variety is required, and those where it is not.

Second, the way the data is processed can make a large difference. Consider the input to a *media player*, consisting of compressed media data. While processing the media data, the media player will show differences in behavior (notably in its output), but these differences cannot be directly triggered through individual elements of the media data. Likewise, a *machine learner* that is trained on a large set of inputs typically will not have its behavior controlled by a single syntactic element of the input. (Well, it could, but then, we would not need a machine learner.) In these cases of "deep" data processing, achieving structural coverage in the grammar will not necessarily induce code coverage.

*syntactic*, but actually *semantic* variety. In the chapter on fuzzing with constraints, we will see how to specifically generate and filter input values, especially numerical values. Such generators can also be applied in context, such that each and every facet of the input can be controlled individually.
Also, in the above examples, *some* parts of the input can still be covered structurally: *Metadata* (such as author name or composer for the media player) or *configuration data* (such as settings for the machine learner) can and should be covered systematically; we will see how this is done in the chapter on "Configuration fuzzing".

This chapter introduces `GrammarCoverageFuzzer`

, an efficient grammar fuzzer extending `GrammarFuzzer`

from the chapter on efficient grammar fuzzing. It strives to *cover all expansions at least once,* thus ensuring coverage of functionality.

In the following example, for instance, we use `GrammarCoverageFuzzer`

to produce an expression. We see that the resulting expression covers all digits and all operators in a single expression.

In [105]:

```
expr_fuzzer = GrammarCoverageFuzzer(EXPR_GRAMMAR)
```

In [106]:

```
# ignore
expr_fuzzer.fuzz();
```

In [107]:

```
expr_fuzzer.fuzz()
```

Out[107]:

'-(2 + 3) * 4.5 / 6 - 2.0 / +8 + 7 + 3'

After fuzzing, the `expansion_coverage()`

method returns a mapping of grammar expansions covered.

In [108]:

```
expr_fuzzer.expansion_coverage()
```

Out[108]:

`fuzz()`

will go for further coverage (i.e., covering the other area code digits, for example); a call to `reset()`

clears the recorded coverage, starting anew.

`GrammarCoverageFuzzer`

is a recommended extension to `GrammarFuzzer`

.

In [109]:

```
# ignore
from ClassDiagram import display_class_hierarchy
```

In [110]:

```
# ignore
display_class_hierarchy([GrammarCoverageFuzzer],
public_methods=[
Fuzzer.run,
Fuzzer.runs,
GrammarFuzzer.__init__,
GrammarFuzzer.fuzz,
GrammarFuzzer.fuzz_tree,
TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer.max_expansion_coverage,
TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer.missing_expansion_coverage,
TrackingGrammarCoverageFuzzer.reset_coverage,
GrammarCoverageFuzzer.__init__,
GrammarCoverageFuzzer.fuzz,
GrammarCoverageFuzzer.expansion_coverage,
],
types={
'DerivationTree': DerivationTree,
'Expansion': Expansion,
'Grammar': Grammar
},
project='fuzzingbook')
```

Out[110]:

- Achieving
*grammar coverage*quickly results in a large variety of inputs. - Duplicating grammar rules allows covering elements in specific
*contexts*. - Achieving grammar coverage can help in obtaining
*code coverage*.

The idea of ensuring that each expansion in the grammar is used at least once goes back to Burkhardt \cite{Burkhardt1967}, to be later rediscovered by Paul Purdom \cite{Purdom1972}. The relation between grammar coverage and code coverage was discovered by Nikolas Havrikov, who explores it in his PhD thesis.

Consider the Unix `ls`

program, used to list the contents of a directory. Create a grammar for invoking `ls`

:

In [111]:

```
LS_EBNF_GRAMMAR: Grammar = {
'<start>': ['-<options>'],
'<options>': ['<option>*'],
'<option>': ['1', 'A', '@',
# many more
]
}
```

Use `GrammarCoverageFuzzer`

to test all options. Be sure to invoke `ls`

with each option set.

The value of `max_expansion_coverage()`

depends on the grammar only. Change the implementation such that the values are precomputed for each symbol and depth upon initialization (`__init__()`

); this way, `max_expansion_coverage()`

can simply look up the value in the table.