# Guide for Authors¶

print('Welcome to "Generating Software Tests"!')

Welcome to "Generating Software Tests"!


This notebook compiles the most important conventions for all chapters (notebooks) of "Generating Software Tests".

## Organization of this Book¶

### Chapters as Notebooks¶

Each chapter comes in its own Jupyter notebook. A single notebook (= a chapter) should cover the material (text and code, possibly slides) for a 90-minute lecture.

A chapter notebook should be named Topic.ipynb, where Topic is the topic. Topic must be usable as a Python module and should characterize the main contribution. If the main contribution of your chapter is a class FooFuzzer, for instance, then your topic (and notebook name) should be FooFuzzer, such that users can state

from FooFuzzer import FooFuzzer


Since class and module names should start with uppercase letters, all non-notebook files and folders start with lowercase letters. this may make it easier to differentiate them. The special notebook index.ipynb gets converted into the home pages index.html (on fuzzingbook.org) and README.md (on GitHub).

Notebooks are stored in the notebooks folder.

### Output Formats¶

The notebooks by themselves can be used by instructors and students to toy around with. They can edit code (and text) as they like and even run them as a slide show.

The notebook can be exported to multiple (non-interactive) formats:

• HTML – for placing this material online.
• PDF – for printing
• Python – for coding
• Slides – for presenting

The included Makefile can generate all of these automatically (and a few more).

At this point, we mostly focus on HTML and Python, as we want to get these out quickly; but you should also occasionally ensure that your notebooks can (still) be exported into PDF. Other formats (Word, Markdown) are experimental.

## Sites¶

All sources for the book end up on the Github project page. This holds the sources (notebooks), utilities (Makefiles), as well as an issue tracker.

The derived material for the book ends up in the docs/ folder, from where it is eventually pushed to the fuzzingbook website. This site allows to read the chapters online, can launch Jupyter notebooks using the binder service, and provides access to code and slide formats. Use make publish to create and update the site.

### The Book PDF¶

The book PDF is compiled automatically from the individual notebooks. Each notebook becomes a chapter; references are compiled in the final chapter. Use make book to create the book.

## Creating and Building¶

### Tools you will need¶

To work on the notebook files, you need the following:

1. Jupyter notebook. The easiest way to install this is via the Anaconda distribution.

2. Once you have the Jupyter notebook installed, you can start editing and coding right away by starting jupyter notebook (or jupyter lab) in the topmost project folder.

3. If (like me) you don't like the Jupyter Notebook interface, I recommend Jupyter Lab, the designated successor to Jupyter Notebook. Invoke it as jupyter lab. It comes with a much more modern interface, but misses autocompletion and a couple of extensions. I am running it as a Desktop application which gets rid of all the browser toolbars. On the Mac, there is also the Pineapple app, which integrates a nice editor with a local server. This is easy to use, but misses a few features; also, it hasn't seen updates since 2015.

4. To create the entire book (with citations, references, and all), you also need the ipybublish package. This allows you to create the HTML files, merge multiple chapters into a single PDF or HTML file, create slides, and more. The Makefile provides the essential tools for creation.

### Version Control¶

We use git in a single strand of revisions. Feel free branch for features, but eventually merge back into the main "master" branch. Sync early; sync often. Only push if everything ("make all") builds and passes.

The Github repo thus will typically reflect work in progress. If you reach a stable milestone, you can push things on the fuzzingbook.org web site, using make publish.

#### nbdime¶

The nbdime package gives you tools such as nbdiff (and even better, nbdiff-web) to compare notebooks against each other; this ensures that cell contents are compared rather than the binary format.

nbdime config-git --enable integrates nbdime with git such that git diff runs the above tools; merging should also be notebook-specific.

#### nbstripout¶

Notebooks in version control should not contain output cells, as these tend to change a lot. (Hey, we're talking random output generation here!) To have output cells automatically stripped during commit, install the nbstripout package and use

nbstripout --install --attributes .gitattributes

in the notebooks folder to set it up as a git filter. As an example, the following cell should not have its output included in the git repo:

import random

random.random()

0.5118399351424251


### Inkscape and GraphViz¶

Creating derived files uses Inkscape and Graphviz - through its Python wrapper - to process SVG images. These tools are not automatically installed, but are available on pip, brew and apt-get for all major distributions.

### LaTeX Fonts¶

By default, creating PDF uses XeLaTeX with a couple of special fonts, which you can find in the fonts/ folder; install these fonts system-wide to make them accessible to XeLaTeX.

You can also run make LATEX=pdflatex to use pdflatex and standard LaTeX fonts instead.

### Creating Derived Formats (HTML, PDF, code, ...)¶

The Makefile provides rules for all targets. Type make help for instructions.

The Makefile should work with GNU make and a standard Jupyter Notebook installation. To create the multi-chapter book and BibTeX citation support, you need to install the iPyPublish package (which includes the nbpublish command).

### Creating a New Chapter¶

To create a new chapter for the book,

1. Set up a new .ipynb notebook file as copy of Template.ipynb.
2. Include it in the CHAPTERS list in the Makefile.
3. Add it to the git repository.

## Teaching a Topic¶

Each chapter should be devoted to a central concept and a small set of lessons to be learned. I recommend the following structure:

• Introduce the problem ("We want to parse inputs")
• Illustrate it with some code examples ("Here's some input I'd like to parse")
• Develop a first (possibly quick and dirty) solution ("A PEG parser is short and often does the job"_
• Show that it works and how it works ("Here's a neat derivation tree. Look how we can use this to mutate and combine expressions!")
• Develop a second, more elaborated solution, which should then become the main contribution. ("Here's a general LR(1) parser that does not require a special grammar format. (You can skip it if you're not interested)")
• Offload non-essential extensions to later sections or to exercises. ("Implement a universal parser, using the Dragon Book")

The key idea is that readers should be able to grasp the essentials of the problem and the solution in the beginning of the chapter, and get further into details as they progress through it. Make it easy for readers to be drawn in, providing insights of value quickly. If they are interested to understand how things work, they will get deeper into the topic. If they just want to use the technique (because they may be more interested in later chapters), having them read only the first few examples should be fine for them, too.

Whatever you introduce should be motivated first, and illustrated after. Motivate the code you'll be writing, and use plenty of examples to show what the code just introduced is doing. Remember that readers should have fun interacting with your code and your examples. Show and tell again and again and again.

## Coding¶

### Set up¶

The first code block in each notebook should be

import fuzzingbook_utils


This sets up stuff such that notebooks can import each other's code (see below). This import statement is removed in the exported Python code, as the .py files would import each other directly.

Importing fuzzingbook_utils also sets a fixed seed for random number generation. This way, whenever you execute a notebook from scratch (restarting the kernel), you get the exact same results; these results will also end up in the derived HTML and PDF files. (If you run a notebook or a cell for the second time, you will get more random results.)

### Coding Style and Consistency¶

Here's a few rules regarding coding style.

#### Use Python 3¶

We use Python 3 (specifically, Python 3.6) for all code. If you can, try to write code that can be easily backported to Python 2.

We use standard Python coding conventions according to PEP 8.

Your code must pass the pycodestyle style checks which you get by invoking make style. A very easy way to meet this goal is to invoke make reformat, which reformats all code accordingly. The code prettify notebook extension also allows you to automatically make your code (mostly) adhere to PEP 8.

#### One Cell per Definition¶

Use one cell for each definition or example. During importing, this makes it easier to decide which cells to import (see below).

#### Identifiers¶

In the book, this is how we denote variables, functions() and methods(), Classes, Notebooks, variables_and_constants, EXPORTED_CONSTANTS, files, folders/, and <grammar-elements>.

#### Quotes¶

If you have the choice between quoting styles, prefer

• double quotes ("strings") around strings that are used for interpolation or that are natural language messages, and
• single quotes ('characters') for single characters and formal language symbols that a end user would not see.

Beyond simple syntactical things, here's a very nice guide to get you started writing "pythonic" code.

### Importing Code from Notebooks¶

To import the code of individual notebooks, you can import directly from .ipynb notebook files.

from Fuzzer import fuzzer

fuzzer(100, ord('0'), 10)

'050199092904721615267546627640773972382632848750065259698551700448752187153'


• a function definition (def)
• a class definition (class)
• a variable definition if all uppercase (ABC = 123)
• import and from statements

All other cells are ignored to avoid recomputation of notebooks and clutter of print() output.

Exported Python code will import from the respective .py file instead. The exported Python code is set up such that only the above items will be imported.

If importing a module prints out something (or has other side effects), that is an error. Use make check-imports to check whether your modules import without output.

Import modules only as you need them, such that you can motivate them well in the text.

### Design and Architecture¶

Stick to simple functions and data types. We want our readers to focus on functionality, not Python. You are encouraged to write in a "pythonic" style, making use of elegant Python features such as list comprehensions, sets, and more; however, if you do so, be sure to explain the code such that readers familiar with, say, C or Java can still understand things.

### Incomplete Examples¶

When introducing examples for students to complete, use the ellipsis ... to indicate where students should add code, as in here:

def student_example():
x = some_value()
# Now, do something with x
...


The ellipsis is legal code in Python 3. (Actually, it is an Ellipsis object.)

### Introducing Classes¶

Defining classes can be a bit tricky, since all of a class must fit into a single cell. This defeats the incremental style preferred for notebooks. By defining a class as a subclass of itself, though, you can avoid this problem.

Here's an example. We introduce a class Foo:

class Foo:
def __init__(self):
pass

def bar(self):
pass


Now we could discuss what __init__() and bar() do, or give an example of how to use them:

f = Foo()
f.bar()


We now can introduce a new Foo method by subclassing from Foo into a class which is also called Foo:

class Foo(Foo):
def baz(self):
pass


This is the same as if we had subclassed Foo into Foo_1 with Foo then becoming an alias for Foo_1. The original Foo class is overshadowed by the new one:

new_f = Foo()
new_f.baz()


Note, though, that existing objects keep their original class:

from ExpectError import ExpectError

with ExpectError():
f.baz()

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<ipython-input-13-19c0eadbd4d4>", line 2, in <module>
f.baz()
AttributeError: 'Foo' object has no attribute 'baz' (expected)


## Helpers¶

There's a couple of notebooks with helpful functions, including Timer, ExpectError and ExpectTimeout. Also check out the Coverage class.

### Issue Tracker¶

The Github project page allows to enter and track issues.

## Writing Text¶

Text blocks use Markdown syntax. Here is a handy guide.

### Sections¶

Any chapter notebook must begin with # TITLE, and sections and subsections should then follow by ## SECTION and ### SUBSECTION.

### Highlighting¶

Use

• emphasis (_emphasis_) for highlighting,
• emphasis (*emphasis*) for highlighting terms that will go into the index,
• backticks for code and other verbatim elements.

### Hyphens and Dashes¶

Use "–" for em-dashes, "-" for hyphens, and "$-$" for minus.

### Quotes¶

Use standard typewriter quotes ("quoted string") for quoted text. The PDF version will automatically convert these to "smart" (e.g. left and right) quotes.

### Lists and Enumerations¶

You can use bulleted lists:

• Item A
• Item B

and enumerations:

1. item 1
2. item 2

For description lists, use a combination of bulleted lists and highlights:

• PDF is great for reading offline
• HTML is great for reading online

### Math¶

LaTeX math formatting works, too.

$x = \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}$ gets you $x = \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}$.

### Inline Code¶

Python code normally goes into its own cells, but you can also have it in the text:

s = "Python syntax highlighting"
print(s)


### Images¶

To insert images, use Markdown syntax ![Word cloud](PICS/wordcloud.png){width=100%} inserts a picture from the PICS folder.

{width=100%}

All pictures go to PICS/, both in source as well as derived formats; both are stored in git, too. (Not all of us have all tools to recreate diagrams, etc.)

### Footnotes¶

Markdown supports footnotes, as in 1. These are rendered as footnotes in HTML and PDF, but not within Jupyter; hence, readers may find them confusing. So far, the book makes no use of footnotes, and uses parenthesized text instead.

### Floating Elements and References¶

\todo[inline]{I haven't gotten this to work yet -- AZ}

To produce floating elements in LaTeX and PDF, edit the metadata of the cell which contains it. (In the Jupyter Notebook Toolbar go to View -> Cell Toolbar -> Edit Metadata and a button will appear above each cell.) This allows you to control placement and create labels.

#### Floating Figures¶

{
"ipub": {
"figure": {
"caption": "Figure caption.",
"label": "fig:flabel",
"placement": "H",
"height":0.4,
"widefigure": false,
}
}
}

• all tags are optional
• height/width correspond to the fraction of the page height/width, only one should be used (aspect ratio will be maintained automatically)
• placement is optional and constitutes using a placement arguments for the figure (e.g. \begin{figure}[H]). See Positioning_images_and_tables.
• widefigure is optional and constitutes expanding the figure to the page width (i.e. \begin{figure*}) (placement arguments will then be ignored)

#### Floating Tables¶

For tables (e.g. those output by pandas), enter in cell metadata:

{
"ipub": {
"table": {
"caption": "Table caption.",
"label": "tbl:tlabel",
"placement": "H",
"alternate": "gray!20"
}
}
}


#### Floating Equations¶

For equations (e.g. those output by sympy), enter in cell metadata:

{
"ipub": {
"equation": {
"environment": "equation",
"label": "eqn:elabel"
}
}
}

• environment is optional and can be 'none' or any of those available in amsmath; 'equation', 'align','multline','gather', or their * variants. Additionaly, 'breqn' or 'breqn*' will select the experimental breqn environment to smart wrap long equations.
• label is optional and will only be used if the equation is in an environment

#### References¶

To reference a floating object, use \cref, e.g. eq. 1

### Cross-Referencing¶

#### Section References¶

• To refer to sections in the same notebook, use the header name as anchor, e.g. [Code](#Code) gives you Code. For multi-word titles, replace spaces by hyphens (-), as in Using Notebooks as Modules.

• To refer to cells (e.g. equations or figures), you can define a label as cell metadata. See Floating Elements and References for details.

• To refer to other notebooks, use a Markdown cross-reference to the notebook file, e.g. the "Fuzzing" chapter. A special script will be run to take care of these links. Reference chapters by name, not by number.

### Citations¶

To cite papers, cite in LaTeX style. The text

print(r"\cite{Purdom1972}")

\cite{Purdom1972}


is expanded to [Purdom et al, 1972.], which in HTML and PDF should be a nice reference. The keys refer to BibTeX entries in fuzzingbook.bib.

• LaTeX/PDF output will have a "References" section appended.
• HTML output will link to the URL field from the BibTeX entry. Be sure it points to the DOI.

### Todo's¶

• To mark todo's, use \todo{Thing to be done}. \todo{Expand this}

### Tables¶

Tables with fixed contents can be produced using Markdown syntax:

Tables Are Cool
Zebra 2 30
Gnu 20 400

If you want to produce tables from Python data, the PrettyTable package (included in the book) allows to produce tables with LaTeX-style formatting.

import numpy as np
import fuzzingbook_utils.PrettyTable as pt

data = np.array([[1, 2, 30], [2, 3, 400]])
pt.PrettyTable(data, [r"$\frac{a}{b}$", r"$b$",
r"$c$"], print_latex_longtable=False)

 $\frac{a}{b}$ $b$ $c$ 1 2 30 2 3 400

### Plots and Data¶

It is possible to include plots in notebooks. Here is an example of plotting a function:

%matplotlib inline

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

x = np.linspace(0, 3 * np.pi, 500)
plt.plot(x, np.sin(x ** 2))
plt.title('A simple chirp');


And here's an example of plotting data:

%matplotlib inline

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
data = [25, 36, 57]
plt.plot(data)
plt.title('Increase in data');


Plots are available in all derived versions (HTML, PDF, etc.) Plots with plotly are even nicer (and interactive, even in HTML), However, at this point, we cannot export them to PDF, so matplotlib it is.

## Slides¶

You can set up the notebooks such that they also can be presented as slides. In the browser, select View -> Cell Toolbar -> Slideshow. You can then select a slide type for each cell:

• New slide starts a new slide with the cell (typically, every ## SECTION in the chapter)
• Sub-slide starts a new sub-slide which you navigate "down" to (anything in the section)
• Fragment is a cell that gets revealed after a click (on the same slide)
• Skip is skipped during the slide show (e.g. import statements; navigation guides)
• Notes goes into presenter notes

To create slides, do make slides; to view them, change into the slides/ folder and open the created HTML files. (The reveal.js package has to be in the same folder as the slide to be presented.)

The ability to use slide shows is a compelling argument for teachers and instructors in our audience.

(Hint: In a slide presentation, type s to see presenter notes.)

## Writing Tools¶

When you're editing in the browser, you may find these extensions helpful:

### Jupyter Notebook¶

Jupyter Notebook Extensions is a collection of productivity-enhancing tools (including spellcheckers).

I found these extensions to be particularly useful:

• Spell Checker (while you're editing)

• Code prettify (to produce "nice" syntax)

• Codefolding

• Live Markdown Preview (while you're editing)

### Jupyter Lab¶

Extensions for Jupyter Lab are much less varied and less supported, but things get better. I am running

## Interaction¶

It is possible to include interactive elements in a notebook, as in the following example:

try:
from ipywidgets import interact, interactive, fixed, interact_manual

x = interact(fuzzer, char_start=(32, 128), char_range=(0, 96))
except ImportError:
pass


Note that such elements will be present in the notebook versions only, but not in the HTML and PDF versions, so use them sparingly (if at all). To avoid errors during production of derived files, protect against ImportError exceptions as in the above example.

Here is some documentation on the tools we use:

1. Markdown Cheatsheet - general introduction to Markdown

2. iPyPublish - rich set of tools to create documents with citations and references

## Alternative Tool Sets¶

We don't currently use these, but they are worth learning:

1. Making Publication-Ready Python Notebooks - Another tool set on how to produce book chapters from notebooks

2. Writing academic papers in plain text with Markdown and Jupyter notebook - Alternate ways on how to generate citations

3. A Jupyter LaTeX template - How to define a LaTeX template

4. Boost Your Jupyter Notebook Productivity - a collection of hints for debugging and profiling Jupyter notebooks